Various people from different classes of society, e. They are depicted as floating in heaven with angels who carry the instruments of the Passion. Representations of God the Father and the Trinity were attacked both by Protestants and within Catholicism, by the Jansenist and Baianist movements as well as more orthodox theologians. As with other attacks on Catholic imagery, this had the effect both of reducing Church support for the less central depictions, and strengthening it for the core ones. In the Western Church , the pressure to restrain religious imagery resulted in the highly influential decrees of the final session of the Council of Trent in The Council of Trent decrees confirmed the traditional Catholic doctrine that images only represented the person depicted, and that veneration to them was paid to the person, not the image.
Artistic depictions of God the Father were uncontroversial in Catholic art thereafter, but less common depictions of the Trinity were condemned. In Pope Benedict XIV explicitly supported the Throne of Mercy depiction, referring to the "Ancient of Days", but in it was still necessary for Pope Pius VI to issue a papal bull condemning the decision of an Italian church council to remove all images of the Trinity from churches.
God the Father is symbolized in several Genesis scenes in Michelangelo 's Sistine Chapel ceiling , most famously The Creation of Adam whose image of near touching hands of God and Adam is iconic of humanity, being a reminder that Man is created in the Image and Likeness of God Gen God the Father is depicted as a powerful figure, floating in the clouds in Titian's Assumption of the Virgin in the Frari of Venice , long admired as a masterpiece of High Renaissance art. In some of these paintings the Trinity is still alluded to in terms of three angels, but Giovanni Battista Fiammeri also depicted God the Father as a man riding on a cloud, above the scenes.
In both the Last Judgment and the Coronation of the Virgin paintings by Rubens he depicted God the Father using the image that by then had become widely accepted, a bearded patriarchal figure above the fray. While representations of God the Father were growing in Italy, Spain, Germany and the Low Countries, there was resistance elsewhere in Europe, even during the 17th century.
In most members of the Star Chamber court in England except the Archbishop of York condemned the use of the images of the Trinity in church windows, and some considered them illegal. In the 43rd chapter of the Great Moscow Council specifically included a ban on a number of symbolic depictions of God the Father and the Holy Spirit, which then also resulted in a whole range of other icons being placed on the forbidden list,   mostly affecting Western-style depictions which had been gaining ground in Orthodox icons.
However some icons continued to be produced in Russia, as well as Greece , Romania , and other Orthodox countries. Muslims believe that God Allah is beyond all comprehension and equal, and does not resemble any of his creations in any way. Thus, Muslims are not iconodules , are not expected to visualize God, and instead of having pictures of Allah in their mosques , have religious scripts written on the wall. These Manifestations are the great prophets and teachers of many of the major religious traditions.
Although the faith is strictly monotheistic, it also preaches the unity of all religions and focuses on these multiple epiphanies as necessary for meeting the needs of humanity at different points in history and for different cultures, and as part of a scheme of progressive revelation and education of humanity. The attributes of the God of classical theism were all claimed to varying degrees by the early Jewish , Christian and Muslim scholars, including Maimonides ,  St Augustine ,  and Al-Ghazali. Many philosophers developed arguments for the existence of God,  while attempting to comprehend the precise implications of God's attributes.
Reconciling some of those attributes-particularly the attributes of the God of theistic personalism- generated important philosophical problems and debates. For example, God's omniscience may seem to imply that God knows how free agents will choose to act. If God does know this, their ostensible free will might be illusory, or foreknowledge does not imply predestination, and if God does not know it, God may not be omniscient. The last centuries of philosophy have seen vigorous questions regarding the arguments for God's existence raised by such philosophers as Immanuel Kant , David Hume and Antony Flew , although Kant held that the argument from morality was valid.
The theist response has been either to contend, as does Alvin Plantinga , that faith is " properly basic ", or to take, as does Richard Swinburne , the evidentialist position. There would be no risk, they say, if the arguments for God's existence were as solid as the laws of logic, a position summed up by Pascal as "the heart has reasons of which reason does not know. Many religious believers allow for the existence of other, less powerful spiritual beings such as angels , saints , jinn , demons , and devas.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the concept of a supreme "God" in the context of monotheism. For the general concept of a being superior to humans that is worshiped as "a god", see Deity and God male deity. For God in specific religions, see Conceptions of God. For other uses of the term, see God disambiguation.
Many religions use images to "represent" God in icons for art or for worship. Here are some examples of representations of God in Christianity and various branches of Hinduism. General conceptions.
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Specific conceptions. In particular religions. Experiences Practices. Related topics. Main article: God word.
- Reiki III (Portuguese Edition).
- Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe.
- God the Father!
- Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret by Judy Blume.
Main article: Conceptions of God. Main articles: Monotheism and Henotheism.
Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret by Judy Blume
Main articles: Theism , Deism , and Pantheism. See also: Evolutionary origin of religions and Evolutionary psychology of religion. Main article: Anthropomorphism. Main article: Existence of God. For the original text of the five proofs, see quinque viae. Main article: Names of God.
Main article: Gender of God.
See also: Creator deity , Prayer , and Worship. Further information: God in Catholicism. See also: God the Father in Western art.
Further information: God in Islam. Further information: Manifestation of God. See also: Classical theism and Theistic Personalism. Mythology portal Philosophy portal Religion portal Spirituality portal. Thomas Taylor Vol. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 30 December Although in the Talmudic part of the Torah and especially in Kabalah G-d is referred to under the name ' Sh'chinah ' — which is feminine, this is only to accentuate the fact that all the creation and nature are actually in the receiving end in reference to the creator and as no part of the creation can perceive the creator outside of nature, it is adequate to refer to the divine presence in feminine form.
We refer to G-d using masculine terms simply for convenience's sake, because Hebrew has no neutral gender; G-d is no more male than a table is. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature , Vol. Kidder, Noah D. Oppenheim, p. Dawe Pandeism: This is the belief that God created the universe, is now one with it, and so, is no longer a separate conscious entity. This is a combination of pantheism God is identical to the universe and deism God created the universe and then withdrew Himself. Apart from the unlikely hypothesis of adoption from a foreign tongue, the OTeut.
Stephen Hawking and God
The former does not appear to admit of explanation; but the latter would represent the neut. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved 19 July Christian Science. Kessinger Publishing. Islam: Empire of Faith. Retrieved 18 December Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. A Social-Science Critique". Harvard Divinity Bulletin. Sri Granth. Retrieved 30 June Archived from the original on 19 February Searching for Spiritual Unity Can There Be Common Ground? London: Longmans, Green and Co. Atheism and Theism.
Blackwell Publishing. A Neomedieval Essay in Philosophical Theology. Lexington Books. Philosophy of Religion. Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 16 July Johnston In its most abstract form, deism may not attempt to describe the characteristics of such a non-interventionist creator, or even that the universe is identical with God a variant known as pandeism.
Pandeism combines the concepts of Deism and Pantheism with a god who creates the universe and then becomes it. Fuller Thought: The Only Reality.